Dec 22, 2020 in Term Paper Examples
  1. Abstract
  2. Background
  3. The Defects and their Remedies
  4. Atypical Color
  5. Color Leaching
  6. The Lack or Superabundance of Fruits
  7. Lumping Appearance
  8. Free Whey
  9. Excessive Firmness
  10. Shrunken state
  11. Conclusion

Abstract

The production of such goods as yoghurt, ghee, and cheese among others involves a delicate process as these products are prone to various defects that may lower the quality or the attractiveness of the products. Yoghurt is one of dairy products and it requires adequate care, otherwise, the quality of it may be lowered by inappropriate practices in the process of production. The research aims to expose the potential defects that may arise from the poor production skills and thus lower the quality of yoghurt. These defects are as follows: atypical color, color leaching, the lack or superabundance of fruits, lumping appearance, free whey, excessive firmness and a shrunken state. The paper also covers the possible remedial measures for each problem and, as a result, aims to address the issue of low quality production.

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Background

Yoghurt is a dairy product that is made by the process of milk fermentation; the bacteria, used in the production, are known as "yoghurt cultures". The reaction involves the production of lactic acid that manipulates the milk proteins to make the texture of the product; the acid is produced when the bacteria cause fermentation of lactose. The process involves heating milk to about 85 degrees for the purpose of denaturing the proteins to avoid curd formation. The next step is cooling milk up to 45 degrees, followed by the adding bacterial cultures at the temperature of 45 degrees. After that the temperature of 45 degrees is maintained for seven hours to allow fermentation (Davidson, 2014). Milk from goats, cows, water buffalo, mares, ewes, yaks, and camels is suitable for the production. Yoghurt yields a lot of health benefits, for example, lowering the risk of high blood pressure (Cifelli & Park, 2013). This paper aims to examine the potential defects in the product as well as the causes of these defects and their remedies.

The Defects and their Remedies

Atypical Color

The defect occurs when the color of the product does not match the flavor of the yoghurt. For instance, when the type, labeled strawberry, has a color, different from light red or pink, it is a defect. This deficiency may occur in the form of too deep or too light color or a totally different color. The problem results from the use of poor quality flavors or colorants that are unstable in low acid conditions. Additionally, the improper storage of fruit flavorings and the yoghurt itself also contributes to the loss of some essential pigments, especially when some ingredient or the product itself is exposed to inappropriate temperatures. The solution to this problem is to use high-quality fruits and flavorings that have stable colors. The other remedy is the correct temperature level, which is proper for the product and fruit flavorings (PPT).

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Color Leaching

This defect is represented be the mismatch between the added fruit and the yoghurt mass. It manifests itself as rings around the pieces of fruits due to the difference in the osmotic pressure between yoghurt mass and fruits. The possible cause is the use of different sweeteners in fruits and yogurt mass, the use of fruits with colors that are unstable in acid or the addition of improperly stabilized coloring agents and fruit flavors. The solution to this defect is to make sure that the suppliers offer fruits with stabilized colors and also give the confirmation of the color quality. The other remedy is the substitution of some fructose in the yoghurt to reduce the differences in the osmotic pressure (PPT).

The Lack or Superabundance of Fruits

Lack of fruits results from the use of insufficient quantity or the addition of poor quality fruits, which may disappear or break apart after blending. Superabundance of fruits appears because of the addition of large quantity of fruits and small amount of yoghurt mass that is caused by the use of improperly calibrated measuring devices. The solution to these problems is to ensure that the correct amounts of high-quality fruits are used and that the pumps are properly calibrated

Lumping Appearance

This defect refers to appearance characteristics that include rough, uneven, or non-homogenous look. It does not affect the taste quality but it makes the product look unattractive. The problem results from improper stabilization, inadequate agitation, inappropriate usage of smoothing device, or filling the cups at excessive temperature or the inappropriate PH. The possible remedies include the use of the proper quantity of stabilizer in the yoghurt mass, usage of a smoother device, adequate agitation, and cooling of the yoghurt to appropriate temperature before packaging it (PPT).

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Free Whey

The defect involves the presence of liquid, which is greenish-yellow in color, on the surface of the yoghurt or at the sides of a cup. It results from inadequate agitation, too low or too high PH, fast acid development, heat shock, extreme temperatures during storage, or even freezing, improper pasteurization, homogenization, and inappropriate stabilization. The solutions to this problem include proper processing procedures and methods. A producer should also avoid disturbing the milk during fermentation as it can cause curd formation after packing (PPT).

Excessive Firmness

The defect is represented by the appearance of gelatin in the container; yoghurt mass is very firm. The condition affects the taste quality and makes the product look unattractive. The defect is caused by the wrong choice of stabilizer or excessive use of it. The other reason is the excessive amount of milk or whey in the yoghurt mass. The remedy to this defect is the correct use of appropriate stabilizer (PPT).

Shrunken state

It appears when the space between yoghurt mass and the sides of a cup appears; this space is usually filled with whey. The problem results from the heat shock, excessive use of stabilizer, inappropriate stabilizer, too high acid level, and disturbing the yoghurt mass after a container has been filled. The solutions to the problem are as follows: appropriate regulation of heat, the use of the correct stabilizer and allowing the product to settle after packaging without disturbing it (PPT).

Conclusion

Yoghurt as a dairy product might have some defects that lower the quality or the attractiveness of the product. Some of the defects include atypical color, color leaching, the lack or superabundance of fruits, lumping appearance, free whey, excessive firmness and shrunken state. However, there are some remedies to the defects; the most common ones are the use of correct temperature levels, appropriate stabilizer in the correct amount as well as adequate agitation and knitting time.

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