Jan 14, 2019 in Term Paper Examples

Democratic Course During the Reign George Bush

President Bush has stated that if any non-democratic country's people seek freedom, America will stand with them. Freedom and democracy, however, takes several forms. What kind of democracy and freedom should a country that has never enjoyed these experiences have, e.g. Iraq, Afghanistan, Ukraine, etc.? Explain your view as to the kind of democracy they deserve and whether in your view, it is sustainable. Being concerned about the development of democracy in the world, George Bush has decided to provide all possible assistance to the countries which have recently disposed of the authoritarian regimes.

To this end, according to the American president, it is necessary to create a “body of active response”. The funds which the USA is providing for the development of democracy in the world will manage the newly created structure in the U.S. State – the Department Office of Reconstruction and Stabilization. The main task of the cabinet is “to help the youngest democracies in the transition to peace and freedom as well as the market economy”.

“One of the first projects of the new Office of Reconstruction and Stabilization is to create a new Active Response Corps, consisting of employees of diplomatic and civil service, which can be sent quickly to the States with crisis situations as “civilian rescuers” - said Bush.

The new organization will send the necessary and proper people to foreign countries and expand assistance programs during the “days and weeks, not months or years”, as it had place in the previous cases. Bush has noted that the work on the democratization and the establishment of a market economy in Afghanistan and Iraq has demonstrated that such changes are a housing need. In the new Office, in addition to government officials, the people will participate as “volunteers which are not related to the government”. New employees will be required to provide operational assistance in resolving the inevitable crises that arise in a democratic society.

In addition, the U.S. president promised a new revolution in the Caucasus and Central Asia. “In the Caucasus and Central Asia, people cherish the hope for changes, and change will come” - said Bush. The President also has reminded the revolutionary trend in the last years: the revolution of “roses”, “orange”, “purple”, “tulip”, and “cedar”. The head of the White House is sure that it is only the beginning, referring to the change of the political powers in Georgia, Ukraine, Iraq, Kyrgyzstan, and Lebanon. Besides, the deadly attack of the passenger aircraft on the buildings in New York and Washington has created a completely unique image of the invisible and unseen in the history enemy which is nowhere, and, therefore, everywhere. The name of the enemy is the “global terrorism”. It has committed the “act of war” against the United States, and because of this, said Bush, the U.S. is now at war.

The “Bush Doctrine”

The National Security Strategy (the “Bush Doctrine”), which was promulgated in the 2002, has become the quintessential non-conservative philosophy of the foreign policy. Its base is a fundamental postulate of a direct connection between the democracy and security, as well as an excuse of the spread of democracy through the use of force to ensure the U.S. security.

The U.S. foreign policy, according to this view, is based on the unrivaled military superiority of the U.S. (United States must strengthen its military power to maintain the status of the world’s sole superpower), the idea of preventive war and a willingness to act alone if it is impossible to attain the multilateral cooperation to achieve the U.S. foreign policy goals. Countries supporting terrorism, according to the American administration, must be identified and isolated, and the U.S. needs to make an effort, including the military, in order to change the non-democracy regime. After the regime change, the U.S. should assist these countries in developing their free and democratic societies. In addition, the “Bush Doctrine” provides the dissemination of democracy, liberty, and security around the whole world.

The doctrine has the additional elements, including the controversial policy of the preventive war, which means the United States should depose regimes in other countries if they are a potential or perceived threat to the security of the United States, even if the threat is not immediate. This doctrine provides the policy of “spreading democracy” around the world, especially the Middle East, as well as strategies to combat terrorism, and a willingness to follow the U.S. military interests in a unilateral manner. Some of the strategies are contained in the National Security Council document entitled “The National Security Strategy of the United States”, which was published in September, 2002. In other words, America is committed to spread democracy and market economy on a global scale, including the Middle East and other regions where the democratic process may face a particular resistance.

The U.S. actively began to implement all the settings on counter-terrorism and security of life. This strategy was perceived ambiguously both by the public and the administrative apparatus of George W. Bush. The United States should look to the sources of regional conflicts and instability in such a way as to promote the respect to the international law and the reduction of violence, and to encourage the spread of democratic governance and open economies.

So, the democracy is a political system that is based on the collective decision-making method with the same effect on the outcome of the trial participants or on its essential stages. While this technique is applicable to any public assets, by far, its most important application is the state, because it has plenty of power.

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Depending on the nature of equity that is provided by the state, there are some kinds of democracy. They are the following:

  • political;
  • social;
  • despotic;
  • totalitarian;
  • constitutional;
  • nation-wide democracy.

Political democracy is a democracy that requires the formal equality and the equality of rights.

Social one is based on the actual equality of opportunities for citizens to participate in the government. The creation of the social democracy is the goal of the Western Social Democratic parties. The despotic democracy suggests absolutism and unlimited majority rule; and the totalitarian one suggests the complete submission to the personality. The constitutional democracy puts the power of the majority in certain limits, limits its powers and functions by the Constitution, and provides the separation of powers.

With respect to the countries like Iraq, Afghanistan, Ukraine, it should be mentioned, that they are the striking example of the so-called democratic transition. Today's methods of construction of power in these countries are not a democracy but a fraud. Therefore, these countries require the social and constitutional democracy, but the democracy should be real.

It is determined by the following widespread arguments in favor of democracy:

  • It helps to prevent despotism;
  • It helps people to protect their rights and interests;
  • It allows the political leadership to be better informed;
  • It gives people the maximum opportunity to live in accordance to their own laws;
  • It ensures a wide range of personal liberty and human rights;
  • It provides the moral responsibility of citizens for their political solutions;
  • It is capable of providing the political equality;
  • Democracies tend to be richer and have a higher level of human development than non-democratic countries;
  • Democracies relatively rarely fight each other.

Nevertheless, there is a risk of the dictatorship of the majority in the countries of the so-called democratic transition. That is, even if the decision is equally considers the preferences of the citizens, it may have unacceptable consequences for the part of the society in terms of the morality or law. In many theories, such decisions are considered as illegitimate. The implementation of the universal suffrage and proportional system contributes to a more accurate representation of interests but does not eliminate the problem. The output lies in the creation of some additional checks and balances that will be capable of protecting the minority from the tyranny of the majority. I would like to present the following approaches of the prevention of above-mentioned risk:

  • a qualified majority or consensus should be as a condition for the decision making;
  • the division of powers into the executive, legislative, and judicial branches;
  • the ability to cancel the decision of the independent tribunal if it violates the constitutional rights and freedoms;
  • the decentralization of power, which means that it should be divided on a territorial level;
  • filtering of the preferences of the masses in order to direct the debate in a constructive channel, for example, through the delegation of the direct decision-making.

It should be noted that some of these measures may also have negative consequences such as political stagnation or narrowing the scope of the institutions of democracy.

In order to save the stability of the states like Iraq and Ukraine, their citizens should fulfill even those solutions of the authorities against which they object. If democracy means that the minority submits to the will of the majority, the change of power takes place peacefully. The opposition not only has the right to express the public disagreement with government policy, but it can act within the law. Consequently, one of the major conditions of the stability of a democracy in such countries is its legitimacy in the eyes of the citizens. The legitimacy of democracy can be justified by its value and the equality of all participants of the process. The presence of common core values plays an important role and allows to come to an agreement on the principles of political behavior. This helps to build the trust between citizens, encourages them to comply with existing rules, and justifies the use of force to protect these rights.

A number of authors believe that the public recognition of democratic principles and constitutional rights as a cultural value is attached to the steady state during the crisis. At the same time, the lack of an effective legal system leaves the norms of a democratic society without protection and sets the stage for abuse of power by the political elite and criminal gangs.

The evidence is confirmed by sociological studies, which state that the democracy correlates with an interpersonal trust, tolerance of unpopular groups, support of civil liberties, and political participation.

Conclusion

Thus, the countries like Ukraine, Iraq, and Afghanistan require changes towards the democratic regime. Nevertheless, with respect to the actual situation in these countries and the mentality of the population, these countries need the actually functioning democracy and the help in its development. Under such circumstances, the doctrine of the United States of the spread of democracy, which provides the assistance and support to such countries, can help in the implementation of the ideas of social and constitutional democracy in the world and such countries as Ukraine, Iraq, and others in particular.

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