The Syrian conflict is a complicated event that causes a lot of discussions in the modern world. Various countries analyze their roles and possible decisions regarding the Syrian conflict. For instance, nowadays there are many debates about whether the Western world has to get involved in the conflict and bring an end to it. While citizens of different countries have diverse opinions, there is also a question of the United Nations role in the conflict such as the role of the United Nations vis-a-vis the Syrian conflict. The position of the UN can be analyzed from various perspectives such as Realism, Liberalism, and Gramscian Critical Theory, which helps to evaluate the current position the UN chose as well as make predictions and recommendations for further actions.
Realism considers states to be rational players that maintain their own existence and care about maintaining themselves (Eminue & Dickson, 2013). This doctrine also speaks about Political Groupism, which means various political players forming groups of influence. From this perspective, the UN as an international organization uniting various nations regardless of their political and economic status has to be above political groups and determine the best consequences for Syria and the rest of the world. In other words, Realism urges the UN to view Syrian conflict from the international perspective and analyze it using the following questions. If all states exist in order to survive and maintain the interests of the elite, whose interests are more important? Does international community have more influence in this matter compared to domestic politicians? What is more important, let the Syrian state go on with events there, or let the international involvement change it in accordance with its requirements? Obviously, Realism theory suggests the second option because it allows shaping world politics in the way that will satisfy the biggest number of players. In other words, Realism is focused on keeping peace and stable development for the sake of existence and cooperation between all of the countries. This helps to prevent wars and possible conflicts that can lead to many horrifying consequences for the planet. As a result, Realism urges the UN to become more active while dealing with the Syrian crisis, which means getting more involved as well as making influential political players recognize the issue and intervene in the crisis to end it successfully.
It is also important to add that Realism views international security as a balance of power when political players act in such a way as to stick to the existing geopolitical situation without destabilizing international community and causing a stir (Hyde-Price, 2008). That is why if the Syrian conflict evolves and enables ISIS to get more control over bigger territories, it may cause imbalance of power. The countries in that region will feel threat of the group, and they may act in various ways in order to protect themselves. Thus, such a situation may lead to an international conflict that goes against the UN goals and expectations for the countrys development. The organization has to understand that the current situation in Syria is very complicated because it may lead to power imbalance that is a direct threat to the world security and peace. As a result, the UN has to intervene and use its influence and power in order to stop the crisis so there will be no more changes and political shifts that can influence the regions development.
There is also Liberalism doctrine that explains the UN role and actions it has to take from a different perspective. Liberalism theory states that the countries have to cooperate together in order to maintain peace not simply out of economic and egoism desires, but out of morality issues, too. It means that the countries have to pay a close attention to the events that are taking place elsewhere and support those in need if they struggle with conflicts. More importantly, the theory adds that countries have to follow the international law, cooperate in economic and other spheres, and promote liberal ideas for the sake of the world development. Liberal theory states that international organizations are free to choose their own steps and are independent actors in the world politics. Nevertheless, as they are being analyzed from Liberalism doctrine, it is important to use their suggestions about the necessity to spread liberal principles and democracy. From this perspective, the UN has to take a step forward in order to become more involved in the Syrian crisis and put a stop to it out of humanitarian and ethical motives. That means that the UN has to help ending the crisis in order to save lives, return Syria back to normal life, fight with terrorism, and help the state become more open and democratic. Liberalism theory suggests that it is safer for the world to exist with having democratic countries since they are more open and less likely to start a conflict, and that is the reason to support the struggling countries so that they become more liberal and follow the ideas of democracy. From this perspective, the UN has to understand that democratic and peaceful Syria is much better for the world development and peace because it prevents possible conflicts from spreading in the region as well as urges other countries to see that whenever there is instability in the world, international community is there to help deal with it. From this perspective, Liberalism should be used to urge the UN take a more active position in the Syrian conflict in order to get rid of the spreading antihuman ideology and ISIS influence on the territory, and strengthen democratic principles and liberal beliefs in the country.
Gramscian Critical theory
There is also Gramscian Critical theory that speaks about ruling class/political elite influencing the citizens culture so that it corresponds to the culture of the elite. In other words, the authorities of a country define beliefs of the residents, and after some time, it is very difficult to change the existing set of beliefs since the majority already follows them. From this perspective, the UN has to realize that the current Syrian government is very far from democratic, and it influences the people in a particular way making them see things from its perspective. The same applies to ISIS that is a huge threat to that territory. From this perspective, the UN has to understand that unless it intervenes soon, people involved in the Syrian crisis will change their perspective on the world and international situation and begin to think the way their government wants them to think. Thus, it will be very difficult for the world community to make Syria develop in the way it wants, and the country may become lost for the international community. From this perspective, the role of the UN is to prevent this from happening by opening the country and making it see different perspectives without being manipulated by its government and possible threats from outside.
Thus, it can be seen that all three doctrines have different approaches while determining the role the UN has to take in the Syrian crisis. For instance, Realism theory suggests the UN to get involved in the crisis in order to keep the existing balance of powers and prevent the world from possible international conflicts. In other words, Realism suggests the UN to intrude in order to keep the existing world order. Liberalism, on the other hand, states that international organizations can act the way they want, but they still have to pay a lot of attention to the development of liberal doctrines in the world, and that is why they have to get involved. In other words, they have to involve in every situation where there is a violation of liberal principles so that they will no longer be violated but respected by political players (Attar, 2014). The critical theory suggests the UN to take part in the conflict situation in order to avoid possible cultural clashes and have a country willing to cooperate and be an equal member of the world community.
Although all three theories are different and justify their suggestions with different reasoning, all of them urge the UN to get involved in order to avoid the further spreading of the conflict. It means that despite the differences between the theories, they all agree that the UN has to play a role of an international referee that will provide a reasonable solution for the Syrian crisis that will satisfy all of the involved parties and keep peace and stability. The UN has to use its influence in order to maintain peace and stability in the region because this is the decision that will be the most beneficial based on all of the international relations doctrines (Charap, 2013). That is why it is extremely important to understand this and support the country in the moment when it needs international help.
In conclusion, it is important to say that all three doctrines urge the UN to take an active stand and make an important decision to use its possibilities to end the conflict. Ending the crisis currently taking place in Syria is recommended by all three doctrines. It has to be done very quickly in order to avoid further complications and spreading of aggression. Hence, all three theories suggest the UN be active to stop the crisis so that the country is able to develop well and there are no further stirs in that part of the country.