Flow Patterns of Bubble Nucleation Sites (Called Fliers) Freely Floating in Champagne Glasses

In the modern world, various remarkable events and special occasions are celebrated with champagne. As a result, it became the symbol of success, victory, achievements, and good mood. Therefore, despite considerable demand for champagne, its producers experience ever-increasing consumers pressure connected with the need to constantly enhance the quality of this product. This approach helps to remain sustainable among competitors and assure the best possible tasting experience to the clients. It is possible to state that champagne is aimed at reinforcing positive emotions of its consumers. Comprehending this peculiarity, producers strive to increase its aesthetical value. Specifically, they explore the behavior of champagne bubbles in order to create magnificent patterns during the burst as well as inside the glasses with champagne. This paper analyses the role of cellulose fiber in the creation of the bubble patterns as it is discussed in the article Flow Patterns of Bubble Nucleation Sites (Called Fliers) Freely Floating in Champagne Glasses.

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The Problem Statement

Given that the value of champagne is positively related to its foaming properties, the producers of this drink endeavor to find the ways to control and impact the process of bubbling.

The Research Question

The study raises the question on how the shape (for instance, walls) of a glass contributes to the formation of elegant bubble patterns. The purpose of research is to detect the frequency and velocity of champagne bubble creation in natural and artificial environment. In particular, the researchers hypothesize that behavior of cellulose fiber is pivotal in the creation of fliers. Moreover, the authors endeavor to test the relation between cellulose fiber and kinetic energy that remains on the walls of glasses after wiping.

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The System of the Study

Considering the fact that the behavior of champagne depends on the external environment, scholars created true-to-life situation for the research. Champagne is poured in glasses, which allows including such factors as serving (wiping, cleaning, pouring), the surface of glasses, and other significant variables that are positively related to foaming properties of champagne. Furthermore, to create a real-life situation, researchers took classical champagne under the temperature of 20 degrees Celsius. The applied method is called laser tomography technique; to monitor the movement of bubbles, scholars ensured a dark background behind the glass and used the laser light. In addition, the bubble patterns were shot by camera (Table 1). These two methods were used in unity to explore the creation of bubbles and their movement. Besides, to increase the motion of fliers, researchers wiped glasses more intensively each time. As a result, they identified strong connection between created kinetic energy and foaming properties of champagne.

Data and Inferences

The present study is based on the previous findings. In particular, it is known that the bubbles are CO2-dissolved gas molecules that emerge during the process of fermentation simultaneously with the release of etalon (Liger-Belair et al. 10976). There are two ways of formation of bubble patterns, namely natural and artificial. The natural process is connected with bubble nucleation that trapped inside hollow and roughly cylindrical cellulose-fiber-made structures (Liger-Belair et al. 10976). The artificial process requires special form of a glass that traps the air bubbles while champagne is being poured into the glass.

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It is known that cellulose fiber is attracted to the walls of a glass, which means that it also entraps the bubbles that search to release themselves from fluid pressure creating magnificent fliers on their way. Besides, it is identified that kinetic energy strengthens the above-described attraction of cellulose molecules. Therefore, before serving, the glasses for champagne should be wiped by a towel; it is supposed to increase the formation of the bubble patterns. This knowledge implies that, along with fermentation of champagne, glass makers and serving contribute to its foaming properties as well. What is more, the process of effervescence intensifies in case the surface of the glass walls is clean. It means that the producers of towels are partly responsible for the quality of champagne; the proper material of towels can increase or decrease the process of bubble formation and their elegant movement inside a glass. Comprehending that all above-mentioned variables are important for the creation of high-quality champagne, this research studies the behavior of the bubbles in a live situation.

The authors claim that obtained data complies with the initial premise that kinetic energy is positively related to the increase of bubble burst of champagne. The cellulose fiber is attracted to the walls, and this process also catches air pockets creating more bubbles. Thereafter, they move vertically to the surface of the drink catching the natural gases of champagne. As a result, the bubbles are smaller at the places where they emerge and become larger as they move to the top. In addition, it is detected that the velocity of the bubbles enhances as they approach the surface. Simultaneously, the frequency of bubbles release inside one flier tends to decrease within the time. This empirical data contributes to already known insights about the foaming properties of champagne. Besides, this research enhances the understanding of the natural laws that affect the emergence of fliers and their motion.


Critically analyzing the process of data collection and findings, it is possible to draw the following conclusions. The research question was clearly articulated. Besides, the authors accentuated its importance, in particular, the role of champagnes qualities of refinement of its bubble patterns. The scholars succeeded in studying and summarizing previous researches done in the same field. The findings were well-summarized, which allowed readers to comprehend the variables that were necessary for the understanding of the conducted research. The introduction section was well-addressed and organized. Methods and materials were well-described as well as the process of data collection. The analysis was complete and supported with appropriate pictures and equations. Nevertheless, the research question was loosely connected to the obtained information.

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Instead, researchers concentrated on the process and findings of bubbling patterns that, in general, supported the premise about the role of fiber cellulose, which created air pockets while being attracted to the walls of a glass by kinetic energy. Besides, a significant omission is the absence of the practical side of this research. Specifically, scholars did not explain in what ways their findings could contribute to the process of champagne production. In other words, it is hard to understand how this process can be improved with the help of the obtained data. Moreover, neither limitations nor further areas of study were detected. What is more, the immense role of the environment in which champagne is poured is neglected despite the fact that this scope has a strong practical value. It is necessary to understand that the quality of champagne can be compromised by improper utilization of conjunctive goods (glasses, towels) or wrong service. Therefore, a practical suggestion implied by the reviewed research is to intensify collaboration of such complimentary industries as champagne production, glass makers, and service sector. Besides, this article reveals a practical advice for consumers. In particular, it presents the ways to define the quality of the drink and its serving by observing the foaming properties. Nevertheless, it was not properly articulated by researchers and, thus, it remained implicit.

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