Reaction on Chapters 7 and 8 from the Book "Terrorism and Homeland Security" 6th Edition, by Jonathan White
Chapter seven discusses long-term separatist terrorism. It contains a review of the violence in Ireland. The critical engagement put across in the whole chapter concerns the efficacy of negotiations by ethno-nationalists. In the chapter, Jonathan White expands the explanation of ethno-nationalistic terrorism. He updates the reader on the peace process in the Northern Ireland. The chapter shows new examinations of the Spanish death squads that were operating between the 1970s and 1980s. White provides a new detailed description of the Tamil Diaspora. In this chapter, he gives a Sri Lankan campaign summary that destroyed the Liberation of Tigers of Tamil Ealam (LTTE). The chapter highlights significant events that facilitated shaping of the modern Middle East. White indicates that readers can understand Middle East by focusing on the happenings of the late 1800s.
From the chapter, national separatist terrorism includes groups that fight to create a new political order in the state based on homogeneity or ethnic dominance. Nationalist-separatist garner international sympathy to coerce the dominant groups. The nationalist-separatist terrorist organizations and groups are particularly intractable for the resentment and bitterness against the dominant group. The groups had fascist ideologies that include racist and anti-government survivalist beliefs. The general dynamics of national-separatist terrorism is opposite to the social revolutionary terrorists seen in the previous chapters. New research by Jonathan White suggests that ethnic and nationalistic separatist terrorism differs from other forms as its basis is a long-term political settlement.
Chapter eight discusses the nationalistic and endemic terrorism. Nationalistic terrorism is using violent acts because of its nationalism-based motives. The LTTE is an illustration of the nationalistic terrorism. Endemic terrorism exists inside a political entity. In the chapter, the author reorganizes separatist and ethnic movements. White wants to highlight the impact of United States preemptive strike principle on the separatist movement. There is a new historical study in the chapter on Algeria, Kenya, and Cyprus. Algerians began their resistance to France occupation in 1954. They employed conventional warfare, non-violent protests, and violent tactics that people consider as terrorism. EOKA was a nationalistic organization in Cyprus that sought expulsion of the British from the Island, union with Greece, and self-determination. EOKA had four year sprees of the IRA style of shooting British police and soldiers. On the other hand, the Mau Mau group in Kenya fought the British soldiers between 1952 and 1956. One can view terrorism in the light of political conditions in Central and Western Africa.
Jonathan White provides an analysis of the manner in which governments can deal with separatist movements. He further expands his discussions of the shell states in the former Soviet Union. The reader understands the separatism in the North Caucasus. Conversely, Jonathan White informs people on the fight between PKK and Turkey. The chapter is important as it shows White’s discussion of tribal and ethnic violence happening in the Sub-Saharan Africa. Using the historical study, Jonathan White helps the reader understand the nature of insurgencies in various cultural, geographic, and political settings. The sum of all the experiences when appropriately applied is a way for defeating terrorism. The background of terrorism in the Middle East brings into focus the prominent terrorist groups in the region. The author provides some of the techniques that Middle Eastern terrorist use to increase their recognition, power, and support.
In summary, Jonathan White provides students with a conceptual and theoretical framework. He enables the reader to understand the way terrorism arises and functions. One can learn much from the readings, especially because homegrown terrorism by immigrant Muslims is on the rise. Many countries face terrorism problems, thus the comparison of terrorist cases brings new insights into the phenomena. Chapter seven and eight provide Jonathan’s review that focuses on international and domestic threat of terrorism. It is evident that different historical periods witnessed acts of terror because of particular reasons. The author uses these reasons and transforms them into ideological and nationalistic motives. Drawing lessons from the history, the author stresses on the issues that surrounds terrorism today.