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International Human Resource Management
The paper focuses on the training of workers and their development from the perspective of international human resources. The paper states that every employee needs to comprehend the stages of career growth, which is necessary for more effective management of the career development processes. Also, training and development impel individuals to assume responsibility for their careers and give them the right to control it. From the international human resource management point of view, organizations should support the involvement of specialists in career management programs. In Japan, for instance, the programs for the development of management and supervisors have two goals. The first objective is to meet the organization's need for planning the promotion of current managers and supervisors to a higher level of official duties, whereas the second goal is to make the program aimed at improving the productivity of existing managers.
The main goal of the training and development programs is to improve the skills and abilities of employees, whereas the secondary aim is to increase productivity. Training and development programs should commence with setting precise and demonstrative goals based on the established clear and interrelated needs of the organization. At this phase of training and development, resource management specialists should play an important role in assimilating the participant's goals to the program. To explain the final result, the process of training or development itself should include the assessment of its constitutive elements. The evaluation process should undergo formalization to become a legitimate procedure. It should not just depend on random and disorganized connections. All members of the workforce need to consider their work as a part of the evolving system; notably, progressive workers can see the development opportunities in the workplace.
The task of resource management is to coordinate all the abovementioned efforts, assist in the development of programs, monitor their implementation, and evaluate the results. It is also important to prepare development programs for managers. Both the productivity in the organization and the psychological ambiance in the team depend on professional and purely human qualities. The development programs aim to advance the educational level of employees beyond the technical requirements of their current work. Therefore, top management of the organization should pay special attention to the preparation and implementation of training and development programs, their professional growth, and promotion, as these two aspects serve as a basis for a company's successful image.
Training and Development in International Theories
The training in the field of international human resource management has a positive impact on the development of a creative atmosphere in the team. However, it also raises another imperative development problem for any organization, which is the proper planning and implementation of the career growth of each employee of the company (Al Ariss, Cascio, & Paauwe, 2014). In this respect, the most significant goal of career planning is to supervise and motivate employees to achieve a higher level of productivity, which is in the interests of both the worker and the organization itself.
The purpose of the training and development programs is to increase satisfaction with work, as well as improve the individual productivity and effectiveness of the entire organization. These goals and the methods used for their implementation must reflect the needs of both the individual and the organization (Al Ariss, Cascio, & Paauwe, 2014). The training programs focus on building skills in performing tasks related to work functions. developing the human resources, and pursuing broader goals (Al Ariss, Cascio, & Paauwe, 2014). Although the terms training and development are very often used interchangeably, in fact, they have different meanings.
From the modernist point of view, development programs are the result of cultural expression. They are associated with the broader boundaries of the organization's fulfillment rather than training. The development programs for management have a deeper sense and, therefore, ensure the improvement of the individual development abilities and performance of specific work as an integrated part of the whole organization (Al Ariss, Cascio, & Paauwe, 2014). The purpose of development programs is predominantly an overview of the functions performed throughout the organization; additionally, this work can also extend to a non-managerial level (Brewster, Houldsworth, Sparrow, & Vernon, 2016). This is particularly essential at the stage of changes occurring in the organization (restructuring of the organization or change of ownership). In any case, the modernist theory of international HRM points to the fact that the changes are mostly the prerequisite of cultural development.
Customarily, the training includes acquaintance (introduction) of the employee with specific work tasks and training the skills necessary for their successful implementation. Through analysis, the training programs determine the framework for specific tasks and skills, the capabilities of the organization's human resources, as well as current and future needs associated with working functions (Brewster, Houldsworth, Sparrow, & Vernon, 2016). The training programs can include helping employees master the skills in working with new computer programs or instructing supervisory personnel in employee discontent management procedures. Notably, the main emphasis of such education should be on the receipt of new skills and knowledge by employees.
Training programs that have a reactive nature are usually necessary when management discovers that productivity is declining. Frequently, it is difficult to identify the realistic goals at the time, and their relationship is determined (Al Ariss, Cascio, & Paauwe, 2014). According to the formalism theory, the training needs to have an aesthetic evaluation of the final result. It may mean that the purposes of development should lead to direct results. Hence, a human resources manager is responsible for the objective determination of management objectives, ensuring the interaction of realistic expectations under the condition that the selected training options are realized and properly managed (Al Ariss, Cascio, & Paauwe, 2014). As a whole, the development (specialized and/or narrow professional) and training (focused on specific objectives) cover the entire program, including both the work structure and education related to work functions (Brewster, Houldsworth, Sparrow, & Vernon, 2016). They are the fundamental components of the organization's development system.
Employees can realize their opportunities only when they are fully integrated into the development process. The positive attitude of management is combined with the progressive advancements in technology, contributing to the interaction of the development of the organization with individual development (Jackson, Schuler, & Jiang, 2014). People tend to obtain more knowledge through direct experience; consequently, to change the situation, employees should have an opportunity to try new ways of solving problems (producing products, services), taking into account the risk (Furusawa, Brewster, & Takashina, 2016). In addition, people become more flexible about various alterations only with the expansion of their participation in the ongoing changes.
The Errors of Training and Development
Learning objectives can vary significantly depending on such variables as the needs of the organization, the content of the professional activities of the trainees, the demographic or qualification characteristics of the staff, the financial situation of the enterprise, etc. Learning objectives can also change over time, with a volatile market situation, organizational strategy, or other similar factors (Furusawa, Brewster, & Takashina, 2016). A common mistake many companies make in the preparation of training programs is the introduction of currently popular programs; however, they are not directly related to the work and goals of the organization, and, thus, do not meet the learning objectives. Participation in such programs is simply a form of distraction from work and leisure for the employees of the organization (Furusawa, Brewster, & Takashina, 2016). Another common mistake is that while determining the goals of learning, management forgets that it has not only a practical but also a symbolic value.
The subject and object of the process of vocational training is, first of all, a specific employee. The result of professional training is a change in the knowledge, skills, and attitudes of the employees necessary for them to perform their duties effectively. Overall, the complex of activities and individuals responsible for vocational training is a system of personnel training. Training exercises, seminars, mentoring, internships, etc. are used as professional training tools. The object of the knowledge management process is corporate experience and knowledge. Particularly, the structure that provides preservation and access to knowledge is the corporate knowledge system. Additionally, the knowledge transfer tool is represented by E-learning and organized interaction of the staff exchanging its experience.
At the corporate level, there is a need to integrate approaches into the training of employees, teams, and business units, as well as to foster the formation of an external socio-cultural environment. Therefore, corporate universities are established, as a rule, as independent units or business units of the corporation. One of the most relevant means of mass training of employees working in remote units is the organization of a distance learning process, usually based on e-learning systems. Due to independence and distant mode of education, corporate universities have a new quality: they cease to concentrate on internal training and can distribute accumulated knowledge and technologies outside, instructing dealers, customers, suppliers, etc. (Furusawa, Brewster, & Takashina, 2016). As a result, the system of feedback develops within the market and society and stimulates the process of organizational learning and development. Thus, the corporate university is a structure that integrates the processes of professional and organizational learning to form an external and internal environment, unifying and enhancing the efficiency of versatile training.
Currently, the field of education witnesses revolutionary changes related to the transition to a competence approach in teaching. The traditional subject-oriented training organization retains its positions in a large part of the professions that are not related to innovation, i.e. where the determining factor is the qualification or the correspondence of knowledge, skills, and habits to strict standards of work performance (Furusawa, Brewster, & Takashina, 2016). Competent organization of training, in its turn, becomes essential when the determining factors of success, apart from the availability of certain professional knowledge, our business and personal qualities, the ability to find non-standard solutions, and experience in solving similar problems connected to management, commerce, finance, health, etc. The abovementioned peculiarities are the main differences typical of the development of programs and teaching methods.
Large corporations are lobbying their interests, forcing officials to change legislation so that end-users are required to comply with certain rules. Thus, corporate training covers the wide strata of the population, including almost all commercial and governmental structures. The scale of corporate training is of a total nature. The larger the corporation, the greater its impact on the labor market, the consumer market, competitors, society, as well as the state and national culture (Furusawa, Brewster, & Takashina, 2016). Hence, organizations should take a course on the creation and development of high-tech transnational corporations that will provide healthy competition for Western giants through corporate training of their personnel, partners, consumers, and society as a whole.
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A systematic analysis of the training needs of different categories of personnel is necessary to determine which forms and methods of training will best suit the interests of the company. This analysis should follow the strategic objectives of the company and the tasks of individual units. Without this procedure, the choice of programs for training various categories of personnel is rather unorganized (Furusawa, Brewster, & Takashina, 2016). Furthermore, failure to identify the need for training of workers creates serious problems for the organization. To illustrate, it is forced to pay for training which may not be necessary, distracts employees from the main job, and, as a result, instead of increasing the output of workers after the completion of the training program, it leads to a decrease in interest in learning and unwillingness to think about their professional growth (Furusawa, Brewster, & Takashina, 2016). The need for training various categories of the organization's personnel is determined both by the work requirements and/or the interests of the organization, as well as by the individual characteristics of the employees (Furusawa, Brewster, & Takashina, 2016). Moreover, the need for training, the acquisition of new knowledge, and the development of certain professional skills are influenced by age, working experience, the level of abilities, the characteristics of labor motivation, and other factors.
Training and Development in Japan
At the level of supervisors, typical programs include the study of the responsibility of supervisors, scheduling, dealing with a delegation of authority, communication, interviewing, training, performance evaluation, security issues, company policy, establishing relations with workers unions, and handling complaints procedures. Interactive methods result in a more productive experience; active participation of trainees and training focused on specific activities, such as reflecting scenarios and resolving the problems of real-life yield more lasting results (Albrecht et al., 2015). There are many methods of development, but the expediency of their application depends on the specific organization involved in this matter. Particularly important are the specific development goals and needs that require fulfillment (Albrecht et al., 2015). For instance, in Japan, there is a center of HRM programs, including Japanese Human Resource Management Development programs by Japan Cooperation Center, Petroleum (JCCP). The choice of a development method should be preceded by a thorough evaluation of it from the standpoint of the above criteria, including its cost-effectiveness.
Before a Japanese organization of the JCCP creates a development program, it must clarify for itself the mechanism for implementing this project and the process of direct involvement of employees in it. Changes in the knowledge, skills, and relationships of the Japanese employees should be supported by changes in the organizational structure, management, policy, practice, and reward system (Furusawa, Brewster, & Takashina, 2016). In this regard, actions for effective development and implementation should receive approval and support from senior management and key managers (Albrecht et al., 2015). Such actions should also cover the goals and tasks realized and accepted by all workers (including the leaders of the worker's trade unions).
Conventionally, education and training approaches in Japan are concentrated on changing the individual. In recent years, training and development activities have focused more on changing relationships with employees, within and between groups, and within the organization (Jackson, Schuler, & Jiang, 2014). At the same time, Japanese development programs are based on the assumption that employees find internal and external reward systems highly motivating (Albrecht et al., 2015). Within the Japanese framework, it is significant to learn more about the process of strict control over employees and severe punishment. Thus, the efforts of the current Japanese development programs should be aimed at ensuring a change, creating a positive environment in which the employee is viewed as a member of the team fully committed to meeting the company's goals.
Development and training programs designed for workers and supervisors make it possible to continuously evaluate the procedures and behaviors included in the job specification (i.e. the specific skills and abilities necessary to perform this work). This allows, in equal measure, to cover all the needs of workers and focus on the tasks of training and development, thereby guaranteeing success. The training and development programs are differentiated depending on their goals and the groups for which they are intended. The training concentrates on the skills needed to perform specific jobs. The most important task of human resource management is to support the linear production managers in establishing the necessary training programs. To accomplish this task, it is necessary to be well-informed about the methods of training and constantly aware of new approaches in this area. The development activities have a broader focus, as they are designed to increase the overall organizational skills and abilities of employees.