Product Design

Question 1. Concurrent Engineering and Traditional Engineering or Sequential Engineering

Present the common and different characteristics between Concurrent Engineering and Traditional Engineering or Sequential Engineering. Discuss and explain about the number of design changes in Traditional Engineering and Concurrent Engineering before the start of production.

Design is a process of transformation of an idea or a need into the information from which one makes a product or system. Engineering design is an intellectual, systematic process in which designers evaluate, generate, and specify concepts for systems, devices or processes. One can distinguish concurrent engineering and traditional engineering. Engineering design is influenced by politics, sociology, psychology, science, engineering science, engineering technology, production, industrial design, architecture and art.

Concurrent engineering is a systematic and integrated approach that is involved in the processes of designing, manufacturing, services and testing. Concurrent engineering is an effective way of improving the quality of the products, reducing costs, compressing cycle times, increasing flexibility and raising efficiency and productivity. Concurrent engineering is used as an integrated environment for product development. Development proceeds simultaneously with research. It helps to open new possibilities and opportunities. It is evident that engineers design products and their components are used as information and an available technology (Chase, 2006).

Concurrent engineering details the design and develops the field-support capability, production capability and quality at the same time. Concurrent engineering has a form of algorithms, software and techniques. However, these are engineers who determine production design and sequence. The integration of product design and process planning create concurrent engineer that helps to improve the quality (Armstrong, 2008,).

Concurrent engineering is a new term that is widespread in the engineering design. The aim of concurrent engineering is to create a product cheaper, better and quicker. Ultimately, engineers focus their attention on satisfying the customer's needs.

Concurrent engineering has such goals as improving the interactive work, minimizing the product life cycle, eliminating the redesigning procedure, decreasing production cost, getting the positive results from the minimization, maximizing product quality, delivering a qualitative product to the customer, improving teamwork atmosphere, etc (Pine, J. 1993).

The main notions of concurrent engineering are quality control, packaging, marketing and sales, forecasting, manufacturing assembly, etc. There are many definitions of concurrent engineering. It may be interpreted as a philosophy of product development that integrates multiple design issues. Concurrent engineering is a method of product design that turns people into the design group. This is also a method of leading people that reveal design issues. The goal of concurrent engineering is related to improving of the interactive work that will affect a product positively (Paul, 2007).

As to traditional engineering, it differs from concurrent one. Concurrent engineering requires a long time for development of products. As to traditional one, it demands a relatively short time. Speaking about designing of products, traditional engineering spends relatively much time on this process. As to redesigning of the products in traditional engineering, it takes surprisingly long time. A cycle of traditional development of a product consists of planning, doing, checking and adjusting.

Compared with traditional engineering, concurrent engineering is more effective for improving quality and reducing time. Concurrent engineering benefits quality of organization, product quality and quality of the process. Not less important is that concurrent engineering decreases costs of scrap, rework and delays. The differences between traditional engineering and concurrent engineering are seen also in the process design. Concurrent engineering saves both money and time. In concurrent engineering, documents become ready in minimal losses of time, whereas, in traditional engineering, one completes only preproduction documents.

The main disadvantage of the traditional engineering is that there is no strong link between functional departments. There should be a close connection between functional departments as it benefits development of a new product. In order to overcome this weak side, one should change a design process from sequential into simultaneous one.

Traditional engineering consists of the series of engineering changes connected with the processes of market analysis, design, process planning and manufacturing. Concurrent engineering consists of simultaneous changes like reliability, analysis, testing, ergonomics, assembly, cost, manufacturability and process planning that influence the processes of market analysis, design, process planning and manufacturing.

It should be noted that, whereas a lot of engineering iterations are involved in the traditional engineering, concurrent engineering considerably decreases the amount of engineering design cycles.

Every company implements a number of changes in the design, in order to function effectively. However, design changes depend on choice between concurrent and traditional engineering, and on the culture of the company, as well. Change is a normal phenomenon for a design process as it makes it more effective and creative. These changes are not evident immediately; that is why they involve some additional costs, especially those arising due to delay in the design process. Making design manufacture-friendly, and reducing part and tooling cost can be made by implementing changes in the design of the product or manufacturing process (Kusiak, 1992).

In traditional engineering, everything is planned and cycled, that is why a big number of design changes will not be beneficial. Contrariwise, in case of concurrent engineering (that is simultaneous and spontaneous), a big number of design changes are both possible and beneficial.

For being competitive, manufacturing enterprise should have such components as customer, teamwork, shared knowledge and systems, product, process and responsibilities. The integration of these components can be reached with the help of concurrent engineering (Clive, 2005).

Conclusion

In conclusion, it is necessary to say that both concurrent and traditional engineering are effective. However, there are many differences between them. Traditional engineering is a sequential process. It means that all processes are logical, well-planned and regular. Concurrent engineering is simultaneous and integrated. It means that it demands immediate changes and creativity. Compared with traditional engineering, concurrent engineering has much more advantages. The most important one is that it is the quickest and the most effective way of achieving goals.

Traditional engineering consists of the series of engineering changes concerned with the processes of market analysis, design, process planning and manufacturing. Concurrent engineering consists of simultaneous changes like reliability, analysis, testing, ergonomics, assembly, cost, manufacturability and process planning that influence the processes of market analysis, design, process planning and manufacturing.

Question 2. The Importance of Design Documentation

Present and discuss Detail Design. It is required to present and discuss in details about (1) the inputs and outputs of Detail Design, and (2) the importance of Design Documentation.

Detail design is closely related with the embodiment. The embodiment design is the draft design that needs refining and modifying in order to create the better design. It demands much time and many design changes. In terms of the detail design, it is necessary to mention that it is based on improving the performance of a product, design optimization, minimising the cost of a product, and making the final decisions about material selection for all the components of a product. As we see, it is one of the most responsible stages. The detail design requires precision and details, especially when it is concerned with shape, form and material selection. Detail design takes place after the embodiment stage.

The detail design is based on the determination of structure and its function, looking for working principles, evaluating and selecting concepts. The detail design demands analysing all involving components in detail, optimizing performance and cost necessary for realization of this design, as well as the final choice of processes and materials.

The inputs of detail design include energy, material and information. The outputs also combine energy, material and information. The inputs are the resources spent on the implementation of product. It can be electrical power, costs or other resources. The outputs are the results of using of this product.

Detail design is a complex process that includes defining a problem, brief design, concept design, embodiment design, detail design and manufacture. Detail design is the widest process that includes such components as the general assembly, component design, pre-production prototype, physical performance testing, tooling design, design of the manufacturing process, production planning, production prototype, production and sales.

Detail design takes into consideration inputs, outputs, functions and other factors that have influence on the product. In detail design, one should evaluate the need of the product and discover the main application of the product. It should evaluate the understanding of detail design, requirements to it, the main concepts and solutions.

Detail design demands more time, efforts and skills. Brainstorming ideas are extremely important here as they diverge from the problem, evaluate and group ideas and help choose the necessary solution.

Design documentation plays an important role in detail design. Design documentation is used to instruct, communicate and record information for operational purpose. Design documentation makes the process of analysis and evaluation user-friendly. Moreover, it allows compare and contrast advantages and disadvantages of the project design. Design documentation is useful in training of new working team and for solving of problems. It helps to evaluate external and internal aspects of the company. Financial control is not less important aspect of design, and design documentation helps control all costs.

Design documentation may include different materials, records, interviews, case studies, video and audio records, design projects, etc. Design documentation helps reveal strong and weak sides of the company. Systematic information is a good way to improve design strategies; that is why one should record and keep track of all relevant information.

Conclusion

In conclusion, it is worth mentioning that the detail design is based on determining the structure and its function, looking for working principles, evaluating and selecting concepts. The detail design demands analysing all involving components in detail, optimizing performance and cost necessary for realization of this design, final choice of processes and materials. The inputs of detail design include energy, material and information. The outputs combine energy, materials and information.

Design documentation plays an important role in detail design. Design documentation is used to instruct, communicate and record information for operational purpose. Design documentation makes the process of analysis and evaluation easier and more user-friendly.

Question 3. 3D Printer or Rapid Prototyping (RP) Machine

There is an urgent need to design a 3D printer or Rapid Prototyping (RP) machine which is used in the university campus to print physical models, especially the toys or gifts. The users pay for the 3D printing service by using the bank card or cash. The input data for a 3D printer is the CAD model in the form of the STL data format. The users can print physical models of their own design or select the available ones from the university's website.

Design Brief:

We are going to design a 3D printer or Rapid Prototyping (RP) machine which is used in the university campus to print physical models, especially the toys or gifts. The users pay for the 3D printing service by using the bank card or cash. The input data for a 3D printer is the CAD model in the form of the STL data format. The users can print physical models of their own design or select the available ones from the university's website.

The outputs of the 3D printing service are that it can print physical models, the toys and gifts. One can earn money by rendering services of using 3D printing, which makes the educational process easier and more comfortable. The inputs of the 3D printing service concern spending of electrical power, control programs, payment for printing services, repairing of printers and losses on supplementary materials.

Question 4. Process

Step 1. Preparation of the matrix of interpretation of needs from customer needs

 No.  Customer Need Statements  Interpretation of Needs  Importance (1-5)
 1.  Can win  3D Printer can read a design from any material.
 2.  Want an innovation  3D Printer differs from traditional machining techniques.  3 
 3.  Want a simple design  The product is simple in use and does not assume additional training.  3 
 4.  Want to spend as little costs and time on printing as possible  The product can print quickly and it is not expensive.  3 

Step 2: Preparation of the metrics from the table of customer needs and interpretation of needs

 No.  Customer Need Statements   Interpretation of Needs Metrics-Technical Specification
 1.  Can win  3D Printer can read a design from any material.  M1 = Number of Print Heads: 4
 2.  Want an innovation  3D Printer differs from traditional machining techniques.  M2 = 5x-10x faster than all other technologies
 3.  Want a simple design  The product is simple in use and does not assume additional training.  M3 = Full 24-bit colour, just like a 2D printer. Produce millions of distinct colors
 4.  Want to spend as little costs and time on printing as possible  The product can print quickly and it is not expensive.

 M4 = 2 layers per minute

 M5 = Finished parts cost $20 USD per cubic centimetre in materials

Step 3: Prioritization of the needs and metrics as well as development of measures and values for the metrics.

 No.  Customer Need Statements  Interpretation of Needs  Importance (1-5)
 1.  Can win  3D Printer can read a design from any material.  4 
 2.  Want an innovative product  3D Printer differs from traditional machining techniques.  3 
 3.  Want a simple design  The product simple in use and does not assume additional training.  3 
 4.  Want to spend as little costs and time on printing as possible  The product can print quickly and it is not expensive.  3 

 

 Metrics  Units  Marginal Value  Ideal Value
 M1 = Number of Print Heads: 4  number  <=4   4 
 M2 = 5x-10x faster than all other technologies  sec  <=5   10 
 M3 = Full 24-bit colour, just like a 2D printer. Produce millions of distinct colours  bit  <=24   24 

 M4 = 2 layers per minute

 M5 = Finished parts cost $.20 USD per cubic centimetre in materials

 mm  <=2   2 

Based on the needs and metrics in the basic PDS, develop the table of Quality Function Deployment to show the matching between the customer requirements or customer needs and engineering characteristics of the 3D printer to be developed.

 No.  Customer Need Statements   Interpretation of Needs   Importance (1-5)
 1.  Can win  3D Printer can read a design from any material.  4 
 2.  Want an innovative product  3D Printer differs from traditional machining techniques.  3 
 3.  Want a simple design  The product simple in use and does not assume additional training.  3 
 4.  Want to spend as little costs and time on printing as possible  The product can print quickly and it is not expensive.  3 

 

Metrics    Units  Marginal Value  Ideal Value
 M1 = Number of Print Heads: 4  number  <=4   4 
 M2 = 5x-10x faster than all other technologies  sec  <=5   10 
 M3 = Full 24-bit colour, just like a 2D printer. Produce millions of distinct colours  bit  <=24   24 
 M4 = 2 layers per minute

 M5 = Finished parts cost $.20 USD per cubic centimetre in materials

 mm  <=2   2 

 

 Needs  A  B  C  D  E
 Need & Requirements 1  ?  ?  ?  ? ?
 Need & Requirements 2  ?  ?  ?  ? ?
 Need & Requirements 3  ?  ?  ?  ? ?
 Need & Requirements 4  ?  ?  ?  ? ?

Implement the function analysis to develop the function diagram of the 3D printer to be developed. It is required to present in details 4 steps which are used to develop the function diagram, including the following ones:

Step 1: Use the mind-mapping techniques to prepare the inputs, outputs and functions.

Step 2: Express the overall function for the design in terms of the conversion of inputs into outputs.

Electrical Power Printing

Payment for Services Getting money

Control Programs Easy Education

Step 3: Breaking down the overall function into a set of essential sub-functions.

Step 4: Draw a functional diagram with logical information flows in which the block diagram shows logically the interactions between sub-functions.

 Functions Solution 1  Solution 2  Solution 3 
 Printing

 3D Printer

 Automatic Printing

 Typing Machine

 Manually

 iPhone

 Touch Screen

 Signal On/Off

 3D Printer

 Automatic

 Typing Machine

 Switch On/Of

 iPhone

 Touch Screen

 Signals to Users

 3D Printer

 Music Signal

 Typing Machine

 Without Music Signal

 iPhone

 Music Signal - Song

Conclusions

In conclusion, it is necessary to say that both concurrent and traditional engineering are effective. However, there are many differences between them. Traditional engineering is a sequential process. It means that all processes are logical, well-planned and regular. Concurrent engineering is simultaneous and integrated. It means that it demands immediate changes and creativity. Compared with traditional engineering, concurrent engineering has many more advantages. The most important one is that it is the quickest and the most efficient way of achieving goals.

Traditional engineering consists of the series of engineering changes concerned with the processes of market analysis, design, process planning and manufacturing. Concurrent engineering consists of simultaneous changes like reliability, analysis, testing, ergonomics, assembly, cost, manufacturability and process planning that influence on the processes of market analysis, design, process planning and manufacturing.

It is worth mentioning that the detail design is based on determining the structure and its function, looking for working principles, evaluating and selecting concepts. The detail design demands analysis of all components involved in detail, optimizing performance and cost necessary for realization of this design, final choice of processes and materials. The inputs of detail design include energy, material and information. The outputs also combine energy, material and information.

Design documentation plays an important role in detail design. Design documentation is used to instruct, communicate and record information for operational purpose. Design documentation makes the process of analysis and evaluation easy and user-friendly.

Reference List

  1. Armstrong, J. 2008, Design matters. London: Springer.
  2. Clive, L.D. 2005, Engineering design thinking, teaching, and learning. Journal of Engineering Education, January, 103-120.
  3. Kusiak, A. 1992, Concurrent engineering: automation, tools and techniques. New York: ASME.
  4. Paul, G. Beitz, W. Feldhusen, J. & Grote, K.H., 2007. Engineering design – a systematic approach. London: Springer.
  5. Pine, J. 1993, Mass customization. Boston: Harvard Business School Press.
  6. Chase, R.B. Jacobs, R.F. & Aquilano, N.J. 2006, Operations management for competitive advantage. New York: The McGraw Hill.

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